All countries in the Council of Europe region use some kind of digital technology in elections. They may use digital solutions for purposes such as voter registration, the administration of voters’ list, vote tallying, the transmission of results, voting in polling stations (e-voting machines) or from home (internet voting). Some of the digital solutions work off-line (e.g. scanners to count ballots), others make use of the internet (e.g. online accessible voters’ registers, internet-based results’ transmission or voting systems, etc.).
The 15th European Conference of Electoral Management Bodies (EMBs) that took place in Oslo (19-20 April 2018) dealt with the issue of security in elections. Electoral security was approached from different perspectives with a focus on secure use of digital technologies (see speeches and presentations on the programme page of the conference). I discussed “The contribution of the Council of Europe in establishing international norms and standards to ensure secure use of new technologies in elections” (first plennary session) (paper follows soon).
The Council of Europe is the only international organization to have issued recommendations on the regulation of the use of e-voting. The 2004 Recommendation to member States, Rec(2004)11 and the two 2010 Guidelines on certification and on transparency were recently repealed and replaced by Rec(2017)5 on Standards for e-voting and the associated Guidelines on its implementation.
In this paper (published at peer reviewed E-Vot-ID 2017 LNCS) we discuss the 2017 Recommendation and the main novelties introduced by it. The Recommendation extends the definition of e-voting to include pure e-counting. It enlists 49 standards which set objectives that e-voting should fulfill to comply with the principles and conditions for democratic elections of the European electoral heritage.
Detailed guidelines for the implementation of the objectives are collected in a lower level document, the Guidelines on the implementation of the provisions of Rec(2017)5. The guidelines are expected to be completed through further work. The main differences between the old and the new Council of Europe standards on e-voting are outlined. Correlations are illustrated. The expected use, impact and evolution of the Recommendation and Guidelines are briefly explained… (continue reading)
What are considered “innovative services in electoral processes”? How to regulate them? What are the european standards applicable?
These issues and relative experiences were discussed at the 7th annual meeting of electoral management bodies from Europe, Asia and the Americas, organised by the Georgian Electoral Commission in cooperation with Venice Commission last February.
Find out more in the report I presented at the Conference VENICE COMM_Driza Maurer 20170227 Borjomi
Keynote at the 1st Scientific Electoral Experts Debates
New technologies challenge the way the Parliament, the Government, the judge and the voter think of and deal with elections. The following paper presents an overview of the main preoccupations of the e-voting legislator in the recent past in Switzerland, an early but cautious adopter of internet voting. It shows how political stance on e-voting evolved over the years.
This was a contribution at the First Scientific Electoral Experts Debates – a new Forum – coorganized by the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission) of the Council of Europe and the Romanian Electoral Authority in Bucharest (12-13 April 2016). The meeting discussed “Electoral Law and New Technologies: Legal Challenges”. The proceedings are now published online. They include a number of presentations from practitioners and scholars throughout Europe.
Download the paper
See also “Legality, Separation of Powers, Stability of Electoral Law: the Impact of New Voting Technologies” paper
The Council of Europe 2004 Recommendation on e-voting (Rec(2004)11) is a soft law instrument containing legal, operational and technical standards for e-voting. An ad-hoc Committee of Experts on E-voting (CAHVE) started work on its update in 2015. This paper focuses on the place of Rec(2004)11 in the regulatory framework for e-voting as well as on issues related to its update. We discuss the main results of the first phase of the update and some specific legal questions related to the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in elections. The main challenge for such an instrument is to fully and correctly translate broader principles of the European Electoral Heritage into standards and requirements for e-voting that remain pertinent as technology evolves. Continue reading
The 2015 VoteID conference took place from 2-4 September 2015 in Bern, Switzerland. The conference featured presentations of peer-reviewed papers covering a variety of inter-disciplinary topics related to e-voting, such as a legal challenge to a specific system; security analyses of several specific systems; analysis of the characteristics of Internet voters in several actual votes; and research papers on advanced verification and related techniques. In addition to these papers, invited speakers presented papers on Internet voting in Switzerland; security analysis of the Estonian system; the actual use of Internet voting in Switzerland; and the use of verifiable voting in Victoria, Australia. A half-day session was also devoted to hands-on demonstration of several e-voting systems. Continue reading
On 13 July OSCE/ODIHR published a Needs Assessement Mission report (NAM) on the upcoming Swiss federal elections of 18 October 2015 (National Council Elections). The report recommends the deployment of an Election Expert Team to specifically assess the legal framework for Internet voting.
According to the experts the revised legal framework for Internet voting and its implementation could benefit from a more in-depth assessment, particularly in light of the authorities’ stated intention to extend its usage in future federal elections. Continue reading
Pleased to inform that “E-Voting Case Law: A Comparative Analysis” is due to appear in September 2015. More information can be found on the publishing house’s website. Special discounts may apply. Let me know if you’re interested in purchasing the book.
Reviews: ‘If e-voting is the future, we need a path to it. There is no single route, however, with cost, reliability and the voting experience to be juggled. This collection draws together expert insights from across the globe, as a rich resource for those navigating the way.’
Graeme Orr, University of Queensland, Australia, and author of Ritual and Rhythm in Electoral Systems
‘This is a significant contribution to the debates about electronic voting that are taking place in democracies across the world. Decision-makers seeking to balance key electoral principles – accessibility, security, trust, transparency, cost – must also understand the fundamental legal issues; and this book provides a fine overview.’
Peter Wardle, The Electoral Commission, UK Continue reading
I dedicated quite some time last year to coordinating and writing a book on e-voting. Co-edited by Jordi Barrat and myself, “E-Voting Case Law: A Comparative Analysis” is a collective book on e-voting legislation and case law in thirteen countries over five continents. I am thrilled to inform that the book will be published in September 2015. The book will appear in the series Election Law, Politics and Theory. Continue reading
The 6th International Conference on Electronic Voting EVOTE2014 was held on 28–31 October 2014 in Lochau/Bregenz, Austria. The conference – which celebrates its tenth anniversary – is one of the leading international events for e-voting. It was attended by experts from all over the world. Its objective is to provide a forum for interdisciplinary and open discussion of all issues relating to electronic voting. The theme this year was “Verifying the vote”. The proceedings of the conference are online. Continue reading
Established practices, new rules and future perspectives
Last Sunday, 9 February 2014, is going to stay in Swiss voting history as the day when voters decided to put an end to the free movement of persons with the European Union (EU) thus provoking the reassessment of all bilateral agreements between Switzerland and the EU. Continue reading
Time line of major developments in Switzerland and beyond
For a start, I wish you, dear reader, a happy and successful year! This first 2014 post will look back into 2013 which was exceptionally rich in developments related to political rights and technology in Switzerland, Europe and beyond. Let’s review its main realizations, promises, challenges and setbacks. Will that unveil what lies ahead…? Stay tuned and enjoy the reading! Continue reading
Posted in case law, controls, e-election, e-voting, legislation, transparency, verifiability
Tagged Bundesgericht, Consortium, Council of Europe, Electronic voting, Geneva, Graubünden, Internet voting, Neuchâtel, Obwalden, Rec(2004)11, Switzerland, Uri, Valais, Vaud, Voting system, Zurich
OSCE/ODIHR Handbook for the Observation of New Voting Technologies
ODIHR Handbook NVT
How to observe an election process in which information and communication technologies (ICT) are used? This is the question at the heart of the recently published OSCE/ODIHR “Handbook for the Observation of New Voting Technologies“. It sheds light on the challenges that electoral observers face when observing e-enabled elections Continue reading
Posted in e-election, e-voting, legislation, standardization, transparency, verifiability
Tagged Council of Europe, DRE voting machine, Handbook, NVT, Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, OSCE, Switzerland
Switzerland & the Future of Elections
The Future of Democracy, HIR Spring Issue 2013
The spring 2013 issue of the Harvard International Review features an article on the Swiss internet voting experience, by Alexander H. Trechsel and Urs Gasser. Published before the latest developments of last Summer (Report of the federal Government, proposed modifications of the legislation), the article presents a brief history of Internet voting in Switzerland and three high-level observations of particular interest to an international audience. The authors conclude that first, the feasibility of Internet voting and its effects cannot be assessed in isolation from the institutional context. Continue reading
A shocking truth?
Keeping your hard drive healthy (Stop motion) (Photo credit: weesen)
Twelve cantons implemented internet voting at yesterday’s federal vote. According to the federal Chancellery 22 586 voters did actually vote via internet out of the 158 500 authorized ones. Two cantons, Geneva and Neuchâtel, authorized both (a fraction of) residents and their Swiss abroad to vote via internet. The other ten cantons only used i-voting for their expatriates. Up to 58.45 % of the Swiss abroad who voted did so via internet clearly showing that this is becoming their preferred voting channel. Continue reading
Posted in controls, e-voting, legislation, transparency, verifiability
Tagged Canton Zurich, Electronic voting, Geneva, Green, Neuchâtel, Valais, Voting, Zurich
The Spanish General Review of Compared Public Law (Revista general de derecho publico comparado or RGDPC) dedicates a special issue to the juridical dimension of e-voting, “El voto electrónico y sus dimensiones jurídicas: entre la ingenua complacencia y el rechazo precipitado”, coordinated by Jordi Barrat (13 July 2013). Continue reading
Posted in case law, controls, e-collecting, e-election, e-voting, identification, legislation, standardization, transparency, verifiability
Tagged Campaigns and Elections, cantons, Electronic voting, Government, Local government, Politics, Switzerland, Voting
Evaluating the impact of internet voting
The regular use of internet voting in the past ten years in canton Geneva (Switzerland) offers an interesting basis to evaluate the impact of this voting channel on electoral participation. This is also the aim of a recent study undertaken by the cantonal Commission for the evaluation of public policies and the University of Geneva* Continue reading
Swiss Internet Voting Legislation and Jurisprudence – actual state
One of the most significant novelties announced to take place in 2013 is already there: a proposed modification of section 6a of the federal ordinance on political rights regulating internet voting has been published Continue reading
Posted in case law, controls, e-election, e-voting, legislation, transparency, verifiability
Tagged Canton, case law, Electronic voting, legislation, Voting
Publication of Audit Reports of Geneva Internet Voting System
Switzerland. For the first time audit reports of an internet voting system are made entirely available online. The Geneva internet voting system was submitted to three tests in 2012: intrusion test, source code analysis and ISO 9001 evaluation. The results have been made public in accordance with cantonal regulation. Continue reading
Posted in controls, e-voting, legislation, transparency
Tagged Audit, Canton, Council of Europe, Geneva, International Organization for Standardization, ISO 9000, Switzerland, Voting
May 1st: UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
Electronic Voting, be it on electronic machines used in polling stations or be it distant Internet voting from a personal computer, is often considered to be a useful tool for disabled people because it might ease vote casting. At the same time, and somewhat more paradoxically, there are concerns about electronic voting user-friendliness with respect to the needs of non-disabled people. Actually both points of view are necessary and they underline the fact that accessibility and usability must be key issues to be considered when developing a voting solution. Continue reading
Posted in e-election, e-voting, legislation, transparency, verifiability
Tagged Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Electronic voting, Handicapped, Politics, Secret ballot, United Nations, Voting