This website is edited by Ardita Driza Maurer.

Ardita has over 10 years experience in regulating the use of e-voting in elections. As a jurist, she specializes in the use of NVT (new voting technologies), political rights and citizen participation.

Ardita joined the University of Zurich/Zentrum for Demokratie Aarau in 2017 as a researcher. Ongoing work includes writing a legal PhD Thesis (Monography, expected in 2019) on the constitutional requirement of freedom to vote and its application to e-voting.

As an independent consultant, she collaborates with international organisations, namely the Council of Europe and Venice Commission as well as OSCE in the electoral field. Ardita lead the updating work of the Council of Europe Recommendation on standard for e-voting Rec(2017)5 which was approved by the Committee of Ministers in June 2017.

Ardita contributes with e-voting expertise to the work of Swiss federal and cantonal authorities. She also cooperates with public authorities and civil society in projects related to citizen participation.

Ardita was previously a member and director of the federal Internet voting project at the Swiss Federal Chancellery (Bern); a jurist at the federal Office of Justice (Bern) and a project officer and consultant at the UN Economic Commission for Europe (Geneva).


Contact: Email info[at]electoralpractice[dot]ch, LinkedIn profile.

About this website

From e-voting to e-electing, e-collecting and e-petitioning, electoral and electronics are increasingly being conjugated together. To be clear, the use of information technology (IT) in the electoral processes is not a new phenomena – think for example of the electronic counting of hand-filled ballot papers. However, the acknowledgment that it needs to be specifically regulated is a much more recent “trend”. It developed alongside increasing awareness of problems with voting machines and to skepticism towards introduction of internet voting for political elections at the beginning of 2000. This blog discusses the use of IT in political votes and elections mainly in Switzerland and Europe from a legal point of view.

Political rights (right to vote, elect, sign initiatives and referendums) are a passionate subject and the trend towards going digital a challenging one. Switzerland is an interesting laboratory: its 26 cantons (States) implement a broad spectrum of direct and representative democracy instruments. In addition, the cantons, and sometime the communes, have implemented a multitude of technical solutions which differ from canton to canton. There is also a tradition of continuously adapting voting procedures to changing social needs: Switzerland if for example one of the only countries in the world to have completely liberalized postal voting (advanced, distant voting via the postal channel). Going digital is the latest trend.

A few other countries in Europe use internet voting for political elections. The use of voting machines is more widespread. The de-certification of voting machines and return to pencil-and-paper voting (2007/8) in the Netherlands and the decision of the Constitutional Court of Germany (2009) which declared voting machines unconstitutional as long as the system does not offer the possibility to the average voter to check the integrity of the results have influenced recent e-voting developments in Europe. At the same time the need to facilitate voting procedures, to speed up delivery and return of voting material as well as to shorten delays and reduce costs is very present. Politically speaking, offering an appropriate voting channel to expatriates has become a priority.

In this context, reflection on e-voting regulation becomes increasingly important not only at the legislator’s level but also at the implementation, operational and control levels. Existing instruments such as national regulations, international recommendations, conventions, agreements, operational requirements etc. need to be (and are being) revisited and upgraded in the light of last decade’s experiences.

Invited contributors

From time to time we welcome articles from invited contributors.

Invited contributor Jordi BARRAT I ESTEVE

Jordi is professor of constitutional law at the University of Rovira i Virgili and coordinator of eVoting Legal Lab. He is based in Reus (Catalonia/Spain). He is an electoral observer and consultant for international institutions.

Contact: Email jordi[dot]barrat[at]gmail[dot]com, LinkedIn profile.

Invited contributor Richard Hill

Richard is the principal  of Hill & Associates in Geneva, Switzerland. He has an extensive background in information systems, telecommunications, negotiation, mediation, and conflict management.

Contact: info@hill-a.ch     http://www.hill-a.ch

Language Policy

To allow for a broad discussion, this blog is written (mainly) in English.


This website is maintained for information purposes. It is not intended to provide legal expertise on a specific case. Accessing or using this website does NOT create a legal counsel-client relationship. If you would like to retain us for legal expertise please contact us at info(at)electoralpractice(dot)ch . We would be pleased to discuss whether we can assist you.

Although we have made reasonable efforts to ensure that the materials contained on this site are accurate, we do not guarantee the accuracy, timeliness or fitness for any purpose of any information on electoralpractice(dot)ch or (dot)org. We make no guarantee on any third party sites either, whether we are linked to them or not.